/ scala

TOTD: Scala - Class Modifiers

Today we're going to confab about class modifiers -- specifically the rules around the final keyword and inheritance. Assume we have three base classes we can inherit from.

case class CaseBase()
class ClassBase
final class FinalBase // <=== this one is locked via final keyword!

When we attempt to extend a case class with another case class, we are welcomed with a compile time error.

 * Won't compile! Reason: case-to-case
 * case class CaseChild() extends CaseBase
 * Won't compile! Reason: locked via 'final'
 * class FinalChild extends FinalBase

However, inheriting opposite class types are ok. The caveat is that there can't be more than one case class in the chain.

class ClassChild extends CaseBase // case-to-class
case class CaseChild() extends ClassBase // class-to-case


  • case-to-case inheritance is prohibited
  • class-to-class is allowed, obviously
  • case-to-class is allowed
  • class-to-case is allowed
  • final blocks all that jazz

A final class member definition may not be overridden, by using the override keyword, in subclasses. And finally, the final keyword is redundant for object definitions. Join us next time when we tackle the trait keyword and the sealed modifier.